Fabrication and Atomic Layer Deposition of Nano-Structured Materials for Energy and Environmental Applications
Skyrocketing oil prices, concerns about the environment from increasing greenhouse emissions, and the desire to save the planet from environmental disasters and degradations, have turned wide attention to alternative energy. Energy generations from conventional fossil fuels have been identified as the main culprit of environmental quality degradation and environmental pollution. In order to address these issues, nanotechnology plays an essential role in revolutionizing the device applications for energy conversion, storage and environmental monitoring. Nano-structured materials are central to the evolutionary developments of existing technologies as can be clearly noticed in the reduction in size of electronics devices. The benefit of narrowly spaced interfaces also results in rapid energy storage due to the reduction of the effective diffusion path. This review mainly describes the recent progress in the fabrication and atomic layer deposition of Nano-structured semiconductor materials for energy and environmental applications. In this review, potential applications of energy conversion (solar cells, fuel cells) and storage properties of Li – ion battery and Super-capacitor were discussed. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a thin film technology that in the past few decades rapidly developed from a niche technology to an established method. In this progress report, the use of (ALD) for the engineering of nanostructures targeting applications in energy conversion and storage, and on environmental issues, were discussed. This paper thus emphasizes fundamental understanding and novel concepts at nano – size for the development of excellent materials which achieve efficient energy conversion and storage; both of which are vital in facing the challenges posed by global warming.
Keywords- Nanostructured Materials, Li – ion Battery, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), Supercapacitors, Solar Cells, Fuel Cells.