Satellite Communication: Signal Attenuation by Rain and Clouds
Satellite Communication has been the most versatile modes of communication among modern communication
systems since couple of decades. Despite being high-quality system, it lacks cent efficiency. The signal sent through uplink
and downlink suffers attenuation on account of many factors. Two major factors of the medium of propagation are Rain and
Clouds. These two factors share water droplets as their common constituent. Electromagnetic waves get scattered due to
differential refractive index of water droplets and get attenuated. ITU (International Telecommunication Union) has
specified highly precise models to reconstruct the original incident signals. This paper provides basics of how attenuation
causes deviation in the net energy of the wave.
Keywords - Directivity, Attenuation, Specific Attenuation, Lin’s Model, Faraday Effect, Depolarization, Scintillation.